Chap 8 Psych. Memory.

Item to be reviewed for Psychology exam tomorrow includes:


A brain structure found under the medial temporal lobe. There is one on each side of the brain. The hippocampus is very important when it come to forming new memories. It may function as a memory “gateway” through which new memories must pass before entering permanent storage in the brain.

If this structure is damage it can result in anterograde amnesia: loss of the ability to form new memories. Thus, someone who sustains an injury to the hippocampus may have good memory of his childhood but, relatively little memory for any event happening after.

Let’s test you memory span.

Digit span test: (assess short-term memory)

How many  numbers can you remember, using your short term  memory. Humans are limited to 7 (+-2) plus or minus two. Seem a little small, if yo ask me but there I do have Great news, this number can be changed. it can be changed to whatever number you like, by practicing. See the Youtube video below. Chunking Ideas on how to improve memory.

Memory Champion Teaches You How to Memorize Anything (Wired)

reflective processing vs. experiential processing

Experiential processing, passive learning the text gave the example of watching TV. There is no effort in learning something new when enjoying a fun movie. It was likely great fun (if it wasn’t, too bad, choose something better next time), did you noticed that you didn’t think hard about what you were watching. Because the memory of that movie wasn’t that detailed, try telling someone about the movie you just watch and see what happen.

Reflective processing on the other hand is the opposite of Experiential processing. Every detail counts. Experiential processing works best for entertainment it doesn’t work well if you are trying to learn something. The text example we use reflective processing when the goal is to learn something or accomplish something. Do you remember you last interview how focused you were, you were paying attention to every little upon entering the room. When the interviewer spoke, you were on point. Think of your last exam and when you preparing for it you had to study right?

In both examples you were using Reflective processing. Reflective processing is involved whenever experiential processing is not enough, and you need to more actively and effortfully control your thoughts to focus on the matter at hand. (Dennis Coon; John O. Mitterer)

connotative vs. denotative meaning

Connotative Meaning: Walking down Broadway street in NYC, I was drawn to a painting. This painting, I have no idea what it reminds me of but every time I look at this painting I think of smiling. Look at it did you feel anything? maybe yes, maybe no because, what you feel about this painting is personal. Connotative meaning is more like the subjective view on things.


Denotative meaning: I wanted to know the history of the painting so, I ask the painter, can tell me a little about this painting? He said, “It is a painting of a tulip, color, purple that is painted on aluminum.” That is exactly what the painting is nothing more. Denotative meaning:  is the objective view on things (what it really is, what you really see), while the connotative meaning is the subjective view (personal to me).


What is intelligence: “An overall capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, and adapt to one’s surroundings.That is the exact definition  from the text.” Do you know your Intelligence quotient (I.Q.)? If you don’t it is easy to figure out, here is the equation. Figure out you mental Age (the average mental ability portrayed by people of particular age), Divide by your Chronological age (number of years since birth) (figure that out too) after you have that all figured out multiply your final answer by 100. The final answer is your Intelligence Quotient or IQ. Learn a lot more about IQ Click Here. 

g-factor: The g factor (also known as general intelligence, general mental ability or general intelligence factor) is a construct developed in psychometric investigations of cognitive abilities and human intelligence.

normal curve (bell-shaped curve)

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale: scale used to measure in children, adolescence and adult. See the information table below.  


intelegence scale

The Stanford Binet: The first practical intelligence test was assembled by Alfred Binet. A modern version of’s test is the Stanford Binet Intelligence Scales.

relational concept : are based on how an object relates to something else, or how its features relate to one another. All of the following are relational concepts: larger . Another example is which is defined as “a male considered in his relation to another person having the same parents.”

Multiple intelligences theory : Howard Gardner of Harvard University. Gardner theorizes that there are actually eight distinctly different kinds of intelligence. These are different mental “languages” that people use for thinking. Each is listed below, with examples of pursuits that make use of them:

  1. Language (linguistic abilities)—writer, lawyer, comedian
  2. Logic and math (numeric abilities)—scientist, accountant, programmer
  3. Visual and spatial (pictorial abilities)—engineer, inventor, artist
  4. Music (musical abilities)—composer, musician, music critic
  5. Bodily-kinesthetic (physical abilities)—dancer, athlete, surgeon
  6. Intrapersonal (self-knowledge)—poet, actor, minister
  7. Interpersonal (social abilities)—psychologist, teacher, politician
  8. Naturalist (an ability to understand the natural environment)—biologist, medicine man, organic farmer

That is it for now. 

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