The Final Exam Review
First Semester is almost over, First exam is the Psychology Review. The text been used: Psychology A Journey 5th Edition Chap 8 – Chap 13 (Dennis Coon; John O. Mitterer). The Final exam composed of 75 questions, each question valued 1.33 points, to pass the final exam 78% is required.
The Review Chap 8:
Intelligence is : An overall capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, and adapt to one’s surroundings. (Coon, Mitterer). A formal definition is : “the capacity to acquire and apply knowledge.” Intelligence includes the ability to benefit from past experience, act purposefully, solve problems, and adapt to new situations. Basically, an intelligent person adapts.
G-Factor: is a general ability factor proposed to underlie intelligence; this is the core of your general intellectual ability that involves reasoning, problem-solving, knowledge, and memory (Coon, Mitterer). A simpler definition : General intelligence, also known as g factor, refers to the existence of a broad mental capacity that influences performance on cognitive ability measures.
Alfred Binet: assembled the first practical intelligence test. A modern version of Binet’s test is the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales.
WISC-IV: The Welcher Intelligence scale test for children: These tests also separate scores for performance (nonverbal) intelligence and verbal (language or symbol-oriented) intelligence. Learn more about WISV-IV.
Artificial Intelligence: Any artificial system (often a computer program) that is capable of human-like problem solving or intelligent responses.They are often smarter than their creator, think of Siri (apple), Alexa (amazon) and many more to come (future).
Distribution of IQ scores (bell-shaped curve): The bell shape curve shows the normal distribution of IQ scores across the population. A bell-shaped distribution, shows a large number of scores in the middle, tapering to very few extremely high and low scores toward the beginning and end. Gifted individuals, IQ above 130. An index of intelligence defined mental age divided by his or her chronological age and multiplied by 100 Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
Logical: Drawing conclusions on the basis of formal principles of reasoning, In other words, your conclusion must be based on something sensible.
Illogical: is the opposite of being logical meaning, all your conclusions are based on things that are not sensible.
The Review Chap 9
Primary Motives: are biological stimulus, (are you hungry right now) things that your body encourages you to do to satisfy a feeling. Imagine, the walls of your stomach starts moving, releasing some chemicals that sends signals to your brain then, suddenly, you feel like eating a cow (for safety reason, do not eat a live cow).
HomeoStasis: is a steady state of balance, equilibrium. Because your body requires balance, Optimal levels exist for body temperature, chemicals in the blood, blood pressure, and so forth, slight deviations from these optimal ranges triggers reactions to bring it back to the optimal, if it fails sickness or death may occur.
Circadian rhythm: are Cyclical changes in body functions and arousal levels that varies on a schedule approximating a 24-hour day (your internal clock). Jet lag “kicks” in after a long plane ride to a different time zone. Jet lag is a term commonly used to describe a disruption in one’s circadian rhythm. How to treat jet lag? be active, once you’ve reach your destination, take a long walk, explore you new environment safely.
Hypothalamus: A small area at the base of the brain that regulates many aspects of motivation and emotion, especially hunger, thirst, and sexual behavior.
External Eating Cues: are stimulus outside the body, that triggers a certain reaction. Most of us loves to eat, therefore most of us are sensitive to the “pull” of external eating cues, signs and signals linked with food. For example, do you tend to eat more when food is readily available and easy to get? In cultures like ours, where food is plentiful, eating cues add greatly to the risk of overeating.
Anorexia Nervosa: A psychological disorder that causes some bodily image disturbances, the victims to see themselves as “fat.” This problem normally results in starvation as the victim attempts to correct this fault by themselves. To treat anorexia nervosa, it is recommended that client’s are hospitalized.
Bulimia: is a psychological disorder, where the victims to feel terrible about themselves. The victim will overeat, then feel terrible about overeating followed by depression and self-induced vomiting, purging, and fasting.
Erogenous Zones: Areas of the body that produces pleasure or produces desires.
Emotional Intelligence: ability to perceive, use and understand emotions.
Source: Psychology A Journey: Dennis Coon, John Miterer