Psychology Final Exam Review.

Chapter 7,8,9.

What the difference between puberty and senescence :


This is the natural physical decline brought on by aging. Age related changes happen but are not really obvious until later in life.


the period during which adolescents reach sexual maturity and become capable of reproduction. Natures way to ensure that the human species doesn’t die.

Todays lecture on stress, Pg 304 to 316, when it occurs, what it does, what it causes. And what it does to the body.


this is the physical and emotional response to events that threaten or challenges us.


stress helps people to defend themselves in emergency life threatening situation. but long term exposure may result in the body’s ability to deal with stress.

Both long term, continuous stress have the potential to produce significant physiological consequences. 

Stress: the physical and emotional response to events that threatens or challenges us.


the study of the relationship among the brain, the immune system and the psychological factors, examining the outcome of stress. The most immediate is a biological… hormone secretion.

Primary Appraisal:

is the first step: assessing the situation in terms of harm it will cause for example, if you pass an exam for a class you took before, Taking another exam for the same class is less stressful than taking it for the first time.

Secondary Appraisal:

this is assessing you and resources you have available to see if it is enough to handle the stress. Example: traffic ticket is always upsetting but, if you have the money to pay the fine the stress then it is less stressful.

Stressful events and situations:

situations that are uncomfortable, uncontrollable or unpredictable for example, Professor giving a surprise quiz when because everyone was absent causing a 20 point drop in grade point.

Somatic Symptom disorder:

Medical problems caused by the interaction of psychological emotional, and physical difficulties: over the long run fighting stress can be a formidable opponent it causes: headaches, backaches, skin rashes, indigestion, chronic fatigue and even the common cold or even stress related illness.

What does coping mean:

This is the effort to control, reduce or learn to tolerate the threats that lead to stress.

Problem focus coping:

Managing a stressful situation by directly changing it to make it less stressful. example: a man having difficulties on his job may look for another job.

Emotion focus coping:

Consciously regulating your emotion: example: mother having trouble finding great care for her child will tell herself to look a the bright side “ having a Job in a tough economy.”

Sometimes people realize that there are situations that cannot be changed and they accept it and cope by managing their reaction. For example, they may take medication or exercise to reduce their physical reactions.

Defense coping:

coping that involves unconscious strategies that distort or deny the true nature of a situation

Hardiness a personality characteristic associated with a lower rate of stress- related illness. this is all based on a strong coping style. individuals with a hardy coping style are generally successful at dealing with stress.

Hardy individuals take charge: these are people who welcome life’s daily challenges. More hardiness result is more resistance to stress. Less hardiness, less resistance to stress.

Osteoporosis: A condition in which the bones become brittle, fragile and thin, often brought about by lack of calcium in the diet: In addition to having a genetic component it can also be affected by lifestyle. Women and men can reduce the risk of osteoporosis by eating a calcium rich diet. ( milk cheese, yogurt, and other dairy products).

Most people reache their maximum height around their 20s… maintained that until around age 55 then start declining. Women decline 2 inches over their lifespan, Men decline 1 inch over there lifespan.

women are more prone to this decline because of their greater risk for osteoporosis.

Body fat tends to increase in middle adulthood, even the person that has been slim their entire life may gain a few pounds. This weight gain can be avoided if you exercise.

Vision: Starting around age 40: visual acuity: the ability to discern fine spatial detail (the finer prints) both close and distance starts to decline. The shape of the eye lens changes and it’s elasticity deteriorates, making it harder to focus images sharply on the retina.

Presbyopia: a nearly universal change in midlife is the loss of near vision … called presbyopia. even people that never used glass tends to hold reading material at a distance to focus but eventually they will need reading glasses.

Midlife brings about many vision changes: depth perception, distance perception and ability to see in three dimensions all decline. Also difficulties adapting to darkness because of the loss in rods.

Glaucoma: This Occurs when pressure in the fluid of the eye increases, either because the fluid cannot drain or because too much is produced.

1 to 2 % of the people over age 40 will be affected. African Americans are at higher risk.

Myopia: You are nearsighted.

Hearing: declines in acuity in midlife, though the changes tend to be less evident than those affecting vision.

Presbycusis: the ability to hear high-pitched , high frequency sounds usually degrades first. in other words, this is losing the ability to hear high pitch frequencies and sounds.

men are more prone to hearing loss than women. Starting at around 55 people with hearing problem may also have difficulties identifying the origins and direction of sounds.

Female climacteric: the period that marks the transition from being able to bear children to begin unable to do so beginning at age 45 and last for about 15 to 20 years. This marks the end of the female child Bearing years.

Menopause: This is the cessation of menstruation…Menstrual period begins to occur irregularly and less frequently during a 2 year period at around age 47 to 48 then stop. menopause is completed when a woman passes a year without a menstrual period.

Menopause marks the end of woman fertility.

symptoms: Head ache, feeling of dizziness, heart palpitations, and aching joint pains, some may experience hot flashes.

Gerontologist: a specialist who studies aging.

The young old: is from age 65 to 74.
The old old: is from 75 to 84.
The oldest old: 85 and older.


prejudice and discrimination directed at older people. Ageism suggest that older people are in less than full command of their mental faculties.

Primary aging:

aging that involves universal and irreversible changes that, due to genetic programming, occur as people get older.

Secondary aging: changes in the physical and cognitive functioning that are due to illness, health habits, and other individuals differences, but are not due to increased age itself and are not inevitable.

Alzheimer’s: a progressive brain disorder that produces loss of memory and confusion. It causes over 100, 000 deaths in the US each year. nearly 50 % of people over the age of 85 as Alzheimers.

First sign of Alzheimer’s: is usually forgetfulness. may have trouble recalling words during a conversation. then the most recent memory are affected. then the oldest memories. leading to complete confusion.

in the final stages they lose control of voluntary muscles and are bedridden.

No cure but a drug that slows the onset: Aricept.

Erickson: Psychosocial

Adulthood: 40 to 64: Generativity Vs Stagnation: building a household: having a workmate: ( can I make my life count:) Example of working and being a parent.

Maturity: 65 to death: Ego Vs Despair: looking back on contribution to mankind, my kind. is it ok to have been me: Reflection on life past.

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