Chap 11 Review
Review for nursing psychology exam, first final. If you are a nursing student LPN or RN this short review may be very helpful on your way to 100. Review text is, Psychology A Journey: Dennis Coon, John Miterer.
Health Psychology: Studies the ways in which cognitive and behavioral principles can be used to promote health and prevent illnesses. Lifestyle Diseases: are diseases relating to personal bad habits. In some cases, lifestyle diseases can be treated or prevented by making specific, minor changes in behavior. For example, hypertension (high blood pressure) can be deadly. Yet, eating less salty food, excreting and taking it easy on the alcoholic beverages will help in reducing your hypertension.
Stress: being in nursing school is stressor filled, which means that you need to adjust to that new environment. Stressors: are any situation/s in the environment that challenges or threaten you. Your body protect’s itself against these stressors by activating its defense, General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS).The GAS is a series of bodily reactions to prolonged stress. First stage of GAS is:
- Alarm reaction: your body mobilizes its resources to cope with added stress. The pituitary gland signals the adrenal glands to produce more adrenaline, noradrenaline, and cortisol, speeding up your heart rate, putting more sugar in your blood stream for energy
- Resistance: Body adjust to stress. As the body’s defenses come into balance, symptoms of the alarm reaction disappear all bodily function goes back to normal.
- Exhaustion: All the body’s resources are completely drained and your stress hormones are depleted. Sign and symptoms of exhaustion includes:
- mental fatigue
- Avoidance of responsibilities
- Avoidance of relationships
- extreme or self destructive behaviors
- Excessive worry about illness
- frequent illness
- exhaustion overuse of medicines
- physical ailments and complaints
Traumatic Stress: are experiences that produces psychological injuries or serious emotional pain. Experience like, war, plane crash, natural disasters and more. Victims may experience nightmares, flashbacks, insomnia, irritability, nervousness, grief, emotional numbing, and depression.
Defense mechanisms (fantasy): are any mental processes used to avoid, deny, or distort sources of threat or anxiety, especially threats to one’s self-image. Defense mechanisms used are:
- compensation: counteracting real or imagined weakness with strength.
- denial: Protecting oneself from something unpleasant by refusing to accept it.
- regression: going back to an earlier stage of development.
- projection: Attributing one’s own feelings, shortcomings, or unacceptable impulses to others.
- rationalization: Justify your behavior by giving reasonable and “rational,” but false, reasons for it
- reaction formation: Preventing dangerous impulses from being expressed in behavior by exaggerating opposite behavior.
- fantasy: Fulfilling unmet desires in imagined achievements or activities.It’s all in your head.
- sublimation: Working off unmet desires, or unacceptable impulses, in activities that are constructive.
Learned helplessness and Depression: Learned helplessness is an acquired inability to overcome obstacles and avoid aversive stimuli, this is something you picked up along the way. Depression is a state of despair marked by feelings of powerlessness and hopelessness. Depression is one of the most widespread emotional problems, and it undoubtedly has many causes. However, learned helplessness seems to explain many cases of depression and hopelessness.
Social non-conformity: behaving badly: Failure to conform to societal norms or the usual minimum standards for social conduct.