It is the beginning of the semester, less than 2 weeks in and here comes a big exam, Pharmacology exam 1.
- Sulfonamides [sulfamethoxazole + Trimethoprim SMX – TMP] Bactrim, Septra
Bacteriostatic: inhibits the growth of bacteria:
- prevents synthesis of folic acid = Antimetabolites
- Sulfonamides primary treatment for UTI
- Treats Upper Respiratory Tract infections
- Also, Treats HIV-associated Pneumonia
- Blood: Agranulocytosis, Aplastic Anemia, Thrombocytopenia.
- GI: Hepatotoxicity, Pancreatitis
- Skin: Photosensitivity, Dermatitis, Steven-Johnson Syndrome
Quinolones (-floxacin) Levofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Gemifloxacin
These are Bactericidal: they alter DNA of the bacteria cells, causing the death of the bacteria.
- Complicated UTI’s
- Bone, Joint, Skin
- Anthrax (ciprofloxacin)
- Oral Anticoagulants
- Enteral Tube Feedings
- CNS: Depression, restlessness
- GI: p-450 inhibitor
- Skin: Rash, pruritus
- Other: Ruptured tendon, Tendonitis, Blurred Vision
- It is a Bactericidal: It interferes with Bateria DNA: causing Cell Death
- Anaerobic organism [GI]
- When taking Flagyl be sure to avoid all forms of ALCOHOL 24 prior to and 36 hours post medication
Non-Bronchodilating Respiratory Drugs
Leukotriene Receptor Antagonist (LTRA’s): Leukotriene causes inflammation, bronchoconstriction and mucus production.
- Montelukast (Singulair): LTRA’s prevent/block leukotrienes from attaching to the receptors.
- Zafirlukast (accolate): LTRA’s prevent/block leukotrienes from attaching to the receptors.
- Budesonide (Pulmicort)
- Fluticasone (flovent>
- Flunisolide (AeroBid)
They prevent/stabilizes cells from releasing inflammatory agents. They increase bronchial smooth muscle response to Beta-Adrenergic Stimulation.
- Those with systemic fungal infections.
- coughingDry mouth
- Oral Fungal Infection: Be sure to rinse mouth after use
Monoclonal Antibody: Antiasthmatic
Omalizumab (Xolair) – Binds to Immunoglobulin E = Limits the Release of Mediators of the allergic response.
Alpha 1: Vasoconstrict- sphincter, muscle
Beta 1 increases heart rate (increases Cardio)
Beta 2: VasoContrict,Bronchodilator
Beta-Adrenergic Agonist: [Short Acting Beta Agonnist + Long Acting Beta Agonis] :adrenergic receptor of sympathetic system, also vasocontrictor.
Non-selective: epinephrine/Epi – Pen: alph 1, Beta 1, Beta 2.
Non- Selective Beta – Metaprolol: Beta 1, Beta 2.
Selective Beta: Albuterol/Ventolin: Beta 2
- Acute attacks
Anti-Cholinergics : Blocks ACH (Bronchial contrictor) from binding to airway.
Ipratropium (Atrovent): Oldest and most common: use BID (Twice Daily).
Indication: Action is slow/ Prolonged. Used for prevention.
Contraindications: Known allergy.
Xanthine Derivatives: Increases cAMP production causing smooth muscle relaxation and Bronchodilation.
Theophylline: Bronchodilator: therapeutic range 10-20 mcg/ml
- Not management
- Potential for drug interaction.
- cardiac disease.