Nutrition Final.

Hi, hello

Reach the ending of semester 2, after this 3 more semesters to go. Now it is studying time. I have all the material to get 100% on my final, see below.

Nutrition Study Material

The text used is NIX, S (2009) Williams
Basic Nutrition and Diet Therapy
14th edition St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier.

Our Professor Highlight the important point, to be covered and study for each exam. The final now is cumulative meaning everything from lecture one to lecture 9. Let us begin.

topic 1: Nutrition in Gerontology

Gerontology : Study of the aging process
Geriatrics: Medical specialty concerned with the prevention and treatment of diseases of the elderly
Senescence : Old age

After age 30, all body functions begins to decline:
some of the processes:
Kidneys and lungs functions decrease – 10%
Liver – 18%
Skeletal muscle – 40%


Some physiological Changes

Body Composition
Decreased Muscle Mass
Increased Fat Tissue
Decreased Basal Metabolic Rate – (the amount of energy expended daily at rest)
Decreased Bone Density – (amount of mineral matter per square centimeter of bones)
Decreased Total Body Water
Decreased Collagen Metabolism


Decreased Hearing
Eyesight Problems – presbyopia, cataracts, glaucoma, macular degeneration, temporal arteries
Decreased Sensation of Taste
Decreased Sense of Smell (Anosmia)


Increased Blood Pressure
Decreased Ability to Use Oxygen (O2)


Decreased Capacity to Oxygenate Blood

Nature of the Aging Process

Environmental Stress
Cellular Limitations
Cells cannot replenish their constituents
Aging cells stop reproducing
Cells become cluttered with debris (sludge)
Cells lose the ability to interpret the DNA genetic code
Oxidative damage
Changes in the Immune System
Changes in Collagen Metabolism

Physiological: Endocrine

Decreased Number of Secretory Cells
Decreased Insulin Production
Decreased Thyroid Activity

Decreased Renal Blood Flow
Nocturia (increased urge to urinate at night)

Brain Shrinking

Neuro-degeneration – we are constantly losing neurons which cannot be replaced
Child has 1016 quadrillion (1,000,000,000,000,000) synapses
Adult has 1-5 quadrillion synapses. Our brains are constantly threatened by inflammatory response, immune activation, dysglycemia, methylation failures, decrease nutrients and lack of stimulation.

Nutrition: Environmental Toxins

Canned Tomatoes — are lined with a resin containing BPA (bisphenol A). Tomatoes are especially dangerous because their acid breaks the BPA down in dangerous amounts.BPA has detectable hormone-like properties.

Microwave Popcorn – Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) lines microwave popcorn bags, and when they are heated the compound leaches out into the food. It has been linked to infertility.POFA has been liked to high cholesterol, uric acid levels and chronic kidney disease

Conventional Potatoes – Non-organic potatoes are heavily sprayed with herbicides, pesticides and fungicides — many potato growers don’t eat the potatoes they sell, but instead and grow their own separate plots without all the chemicals.

Farmed Salmon – Farmed salmon are stuffed into pens and fed chicken feathers and fish pellets. A scientific study on fish contamination showed high levels of carcinogens such as DDT and PCBs.

Conventional Milk – Dairy cows are fed growth hormones and antibiotics to maximize milk production, which results in increased incidence of udder infection and pus in the milk.

Conventional Apples -Apples are heavily and frequently doused with pesticides — pesticides which have been linked to Parkinson’s.

< p style=”font-size: 30px;”>Gerontology: The Brain: Alzheimers

The human brain is 60% fat, mostly polyunsaturated, what makes it exceptionally vulnerable to oxidation (lipid per oxidation).The brain anatomy has one of the highest oxygen concentrations of any organ. It consumes 20% of all the blood’s oxygen, even though it makes up only 2% of the body’s weight. The human brain anatomy has one of the highest metabolic rates of any organ, and it never rests (even during deep sleep).

β amyloid deposits are proteins which are fragments of deteriorating neurons, especially those that produce acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter essential for processing memory and learning.
Neurofibrillary tangles are twisted remnants of axonal transport proteins = tau

Incidence: Doubles every five years after the age of 65
Loss of memory
Loss of judgment
Loss of reasoning
Loss of coordinated movements
Loss of pattern recognition

What lessens the changes of Alzheimer’s

Use your mind – puzzles, reading, manual tasks– keep thinking – use it or lose it Exercise your cognitive ability 45 min/day
Sleep: 8 hours per day
HTN: speeds up normal brain shrinkage
Stress: cortisol levels which wear on neurons in hippocampus.

Studying proves to be very effective after all, close to the end it will help in preventing this. And that conclude the first chapter for my Nutrition final. thanks for reading Enjoy. 

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *